Understanding decorators

By : Akshar Raaj

Understanding decorators in Python

We will divide this post into two topics

  1. Functions are objects and they can be passed around.
  2. Writing few decorators

As usual, I will be trying out the code in ipython and I suggest you to do the same.

Functions can be passed around similar to any other object in Python.

If you are already familiar with this, you can skip to next section.

Let's first write a class.

>>> class A(object):
...     def __init__(self, a):
...         self.a = a
...

Let's create an instance of this class.

>>> obj = A(5)    
>>> print obj.a
5                 #output

Let's write a function that takes an object, increase the value of instance variable 'a' by 10 and return the object.

>>> def func(some_obj):
...     some_obj.a = some_obj.a + 10
...     return some_obj
...

In function func, our assumption is that we will always pass it an object as argument and this object will have an instance variable 'a'.

Let's pass the created object obj of class A to this function and take the return value of this function in a variable named obj2.

>>> obj2 = func(obj)
>>> print obj2.a
15

We wrote a function 'func' that takes an object as an argument, manipulates it and also returns that object. We passed around the object 'obj' of class A.

In Python, functions are objects. They can be passed around similar to any other object. Let's see this through an example.

Let's write a function that prints something.

>>> def hello_world():
...     print "Hello World"
...

Use this function.

>>> hello_world()
Hello World            #output

Since functions are objects they can be assigned to any variable.

>>> hello_world_two = hello_world

We assigned hello_world, which is a function, to another variable named hello_world_two.

Use hello_world_two

>>> hello_world_two()
Hello World             #It gives the same output as hello_world()

Now we want to see how to pass around this function.

For that, we want to write a new function that takes function 'hello_world' as an argument and then uses it.

>>> def use_hello_world(some_func):
...     print "This function takes a function as an argument and uses it"
...     print "We will send function hello_world to this function as an argument and will use it in this function"
...     some_func()          #This is a function call. So our assumption is 'some_func' must be a function.
...

Let's use function use_hello_world.

>>> use_hello_world(hello_world)
This function takes a function as an argument and uses it
We will send function hello_world to this function as an argument and will use it in this function
Hello World                 #This is because of the print stament we have in hello_world()

What happened here?

  1. hello_world is the name of the first function we wrote.
  2. We wanted to see how to pass around functions.
  3. We wrote another function named use_hello_world. use_hello_world expects one argument.
  4. use_hello_world has three lines in its body.
  5. The first two lines of use_hello_world are just print staments.
  6. Third line of use_hello_world used the argument that it recieved. Notice the parenthesis after some_func. So. assumption with use_hello_world is that the argument that will be passed to it will be a function.

Calling use_hello_world

  1. We passed one argument which is function hello_world to use_hello_world.
  2. In use_hello_world, received argument hello_world was assigned to variable named some_func.
  3. Two print statements in use_hello_world were printed.
  4. some_func which refers to the function pointed to by hello_world was called and the print statement in hello_world was executed.

Also functions can be returned from another function. Let's see it.

>>> def some_func():
...     print "This function defines an inner function"
...     def say_hello():
...         print "Hello Duniya"
...     print "A function can be returned from a function"
...     return say_hello
...

What happens in function some_func?

  1. First line is a print statement
  2. We define an inner function named say_hello inside this function.
  3. We have a print stament inside say_hello.
  4. Fourth line is a print statement of function some_func.
  5. say_hello has only one line in its body which is Hello Duniya
  6. We return function say_hello.

Let's see how say_hello can be used.

>>> abc = some_func()
This function defines an inner function                             #output
A function can be returned from a function                          #output

What happened on calling some_func?

  1. As we call some_func, two print statements inside it gets executed.
  2. However, we do not see third line inside some_func i.e the print statement of say_hello in the output. This is because when we call some_func, the inner function inside it is only defined but it is not called.
  3. Last line of some_func returns the function defined inside it which is say_hello. Then this say_hello gets assigned to abc. Now abc and say_hello are referring to the same function.

Using abc

>>> abc()
Hello Duniya                                        #output

So now we are comfortable with passing functions as arguments as well as defining an inner function inside another function and returning it.

Writing a simple decorator

Decorators are functions that recieve a function as an argument and return another function as return value.

Let's first write a function without decorator.

>>> def divide(numerator, denominator):
...     return numerator/denominator
...

Let's use this function few times.

>>> divide(4, 2)
2                   #output

>>> divide(4, 0)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<ipython-input-11-9552c1bdcb43>", line 1, in <module>
    divide(4, 0)
  File "<ipython-input-9-e63f86a52419>", line 2, in divide
    return numerator/denominator
ZeroDivisionError: integer division or modulo by zero

So, our second run of divide() raised an error.

We can fix it by having an if condition in divide() and making sure that the denominator is not zero. However here we want to understand decorators, so we will fix it using a decorator. We will see a practical use of decorator later.

So, what we intend to do is, if the denominator is 0 then we do not perform the division and just return 0. If the denominator is not 0 then perform the division.

Let's write a decorator. We will go through every line of the decorator once we have defined the decorator, so just go ahead and define the decorator written below.

>>> def decorate(function_to_be_decorated):
...     def another_function(num, den):
...         if den==0:
...             return 0
...         else:
...             result = function_to_be_decorated(num, den)
...             return result
...     return another_function

Explanation:

  1. As we said at beginning, a decorator is just a function which recieves a function as an argument and returns some other function as a return value.
  2. A decorator is just a function, so everything applicable to a function is applicable to a decorator. A decorator is a special type of function.
  3. We defined a function named decorate. It is a decorator as well but we will keep calling it as function for sometime.
  4. This function named decorate expects one argument to be passed to it as we can see from the signature of decorate.
  5. The argument that we pass to this function decorate will be captured in the variable function_to_be_decorated.
  6. The argument passed to decorate must be a function itself. (The assumption for a decorator is that we will pass a function as argument to it).
  7. Since a function will be passed as an argument to decorate, function_to_be_decorated will refer to that passed function.
  8. We define a function named another_function inside decorate.
  9. The purpose of writing this decorator is to help us fix function divide().
  10. So the signature of another_function must match the signature of divide. Since divide has two parameters, so another_function must also have two parameters. We have named those parameters num and den.
  11. Ignore the body of another_function for now, we will come to it very soon.
  12. At the end we return function named another_function from decorate. So we see that a decorator also returns a function. And it returns the same function that it defined inside itself. So here we defined another_function inside our decorator decorate and returned that same function from the decorator.
  13. Read the first point again and verify that everything we said about decorators is true.

Let's use the decorator that we just defined.

>>> divide = decorate(divide)

What happened when we wrote divide = decorate(divide)?

Only concentrate on left hand side of this assignment for now i.e decorate(divide) part.
  1. We passed the function divide to decorator named decorate.
  2. In decorator decorate, function divide gets assigned to variable function_to_be_decorated.
  3. So function_to_be_decorated start referring to divide. Let's start calling it old divide now. So, function_to_be_decorated refers to old divide. Old divide has only one statement in it which is "return numerator/denominator". Make sure you understood this statement, we need it later.
Talking about right hand side of this assignment.
  1. Whatever is returned from decorate is assigned to divide.
  2. decorate returns the reference to function named another_function, which gets assigned to divide. Now, divide starts referring to another_function and is no more referring to the version of divide as defined by us initially.
  3. But no worries, old/actual version of divide i.e the one which had only one statement "return numerator/denominator" is still being referenced by function_to_be_decorated. So, it is still reachable and usable.

Using new divide.

>>> divide(4, 2)
2                                 #output

Explanation:

  1. Now divide refers to another_function.
  2. So, calling divide actually calls another_function.
  3. another_function has parameters num and den.
  4. Passing the arguments, assigns 4 to num and 2 to den.
  5. We check if den equals 0. Here, den did not equal 0. So, we reach else part of another_function.
  6. In else part, we use function_to_be_decorated. But, remember function_to_be_decorated refers to older/actual version of divide.
  7. The arguments recieved in another_function i.e num and den are passed as it is to function_to_be_decorated i.e actual version of divide.
  8. So, 4 and 2 are passed to function_to_be_decorated i.e to old divide.
  9. In old divide 4 gets assigned to variable numerator and 2 gets assigned to variable denominator.
  10. And the actual version of divide just divides the numerator by denominator and returns it.
  11. We get the value returned from function_to_be_decorated i.e old divide into varaible result and return it from function another_function.

Using new divide again.

>>> divide(4, 0)
0                               #output

Explanation:

  1. Passing the arguments, assigns 4 to num and 0 to den.
  2. We check if den equals 0. Here if condition evaluates to True and we return 0.
  3. So, here function_to_be_decorated i.e old divide was not called after we saw that variable den is 0.

The part which had to be understood is done. If you have understood till here, everything here onwards is as easy as pie.

Though we achieved what we wanted to, we did not use the decorator syntax for changing the behaviour of our original/old divide function.

Let's redefine divide so that it becomes as it was initially.

>>> def divide(numerator, denominator):
...     return numerator/denominator

Pass denominator as 0 to this function to verify that this doesn't work.

>>> divide(4, 0)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<ipython-input-19-9552c1bdcb43>", line 1, in <module>
    divide(4, 0)
  File "<ipython-input-18-e63f86a52419>", line 2, in divide
    return numerator/denominator
ZeroDivisionError: integer division or modulo by zero

Earlier, to fix this thing we used "divide=decorate(divide)". This time we will use the exact decorator syntax.

Redefine divide

>>> @decorate
... def divide(numerator, denominator):
...     return numerator/denominator

Yes, you spotted it. We need to put @decorate above the function definition.

Now try dividing by 0.

>>> divide(4, 0)
0                                              #output

Voila, we fixed what we intended using decorator syntax.

What is this @decorate?

  1. Interpretor comes across the statement @decorate. So, it knows the function which follows @decorate i.e function named divide needs to be decorated using the decorator named decorate.
  2. It reads the function definition on next line i.e function definition for divide and does the usual stuff as it does for any undecorated function. Nothing special happens at this stage.
  3. But once the function definition is read, interpreter will do an extra operation. It will execute one more statement after function definition.
  4. And the extra statement it executes is divide=decorate(divide). This is the step which we performed manually earlier when we were not using the decorator syntax. But with the decorator syntax, the interpreter takes care of that step for us.

Let's write one more decorator. This decorator needs to check that the denominator is greater than numerator and then only perform the division, otherwise division should not be performed and just return 0. Weird requirement, isn't it?

>>> def decorate_den_less_than_num(function):
...     print "Decorator to check denominator less than numerator applied"
...     def check_den_less_than_num(num, den):
...         if den>num:
...             print "Denominator > Numerator. So dont call the actual function"
...             return 0
...         else:
...             print "Denominator <= Numerator. So call actual function"
...             return function(num, den)
...     return check_den_less_than_num
...

We wrote the decorator keeping in mind that this decorator has to be applied to a function which expects two arguments. So the function defined inside decorator i.e check_den_less_than_num should also take two arguments and then it should make proper check and based on that it should call the actual function. We have some print statements to see what happens at different stages.

Let's rewrite function divide applying the above written decorator to it.

>>> @decorate_den_less_than_num
... def divide(numerator, denominator):
...     return numerator/denominator
... 
Decorator to check denominator less than numerator applied     #output

Why we got the output "Decorator to che............ applied" ?

  1. As we discussed, interpreter saw a decorator syntax above the function divide.
  2. It did nothing till the function body is defined.
  3. But after function body was defined, interpreter would have executed one more statement which is divide=decorate_den_less_than_num(divide). This would have made a call to decorate_den_less_than_num and so the body of decorate_den_less_than_num was executed and so we saw the print statement inside the decorator.

Make some calls to divide to see how it behaves.

>>> divide(4, 2)
Denominator <= Numerator. So call actual function
2

>>> divide(4, 5)
Denominator > Numerator. So dont call the actual function
0

I wanted this tutorial to be acesible to beginners so I was unable to do justice to this topic. I plan to write more about decorators. Please let me know if this would help you. Things I want to write about.

  1. Chaining decorators
  2. Understanding __call__ and class based decorators
  3. Some practical examples of decorator


Related Posts


Can we help you build amazing apps? Contact us today.

Comments

David Friedman 17th Nov., 2012

This was one of the cleanest explanations of decorators I've come across. Thanks for posting it!

commmenttor
Tim 17th Nov., 2012

I always ignored decorators because I wasn't sure what they were supposed to be. Now they make sense. Thanks.

commmenttor
Tom 18th Nov., 2012

I agree - this is an excellent explanation of how decorators work.

commmenttor
Francisco Barros 19th Nov., 2012

Clean, didactic, very good.
Yes, keep writing about them.
Thanks and congrats!

commmenttor
Phil Nguyen 22nd Nov., 2012

Excellent! Thanks for posting it. Now, I really understand how decorators work.

commmenttor
Samuel Komfi

Brilliant tutorial, simple, clean and straight forward

commmenttor
Leandro Severino

Friend,

Is there a problem for navigate in the tags/categories of your blog ?

commmenttor
krish 23rd Nov., 2012

Everything is ok except that division by 0 should not return 0. You should return 'undefined'.

commmenttor
Arthur 23rd Nov., 2012

The perfect start point of me understanding decorators in python!

commmenttor
Saurabh Kumar

I'm new to python, with background in Javascript. This article made me feel home. Thanks Aksar.

I would love to see your post on practical decorators.

Cheers,

commmenttor
Shabda Raaj


Leandro Severino: Indeed, there was bug in the category pages. We just fixed it. Thanks!

commmenttor
Paolo 28th Dec., 2012

Very neat and clear explanation, the best I've found!
Thank you
Paolo

commmenttor
test website

I'm shocked how good this blog is!

commmenttor
best deals james jones jersey

nfl jersey gives spanking new life to a old problem. . . defacto requirements
best deals james jones jersey http://www.longlakehockey.com/products/baseball-jerseys-vector/cheap-dolphin-jerseys/smvkgigx-p-246.html

commmenttor
best julio jones jersey

Finish your meal and put your feet up Whilst Learning the Secrets of nfl jersey
best julio jones jersey http://www.donfoxsystems.com/benok/youth-troy-polamalu-jersey/womens-ravens-jersey/rvffppkz-p-155.html

commmenttor
65% off london fletcher jersey nike redskins authentic london fletcher black gold white us sale

nfl jersey Press Channels Acquire The Up-dates Automatically
65% off london fletcher jersey nike redskins authentic london fletcher black gold white us sale http://www.rayoman.com/menu/blank-basketball-jerseys-wholesale/soccer-jerseys-wholesale-free-shipping/zgrfkadk-p-620.html

commmenttor
lowest price browns paul kruger navy white silver jersey nike womens mens off 60%

The Incredible Income Generation Effectiveness Behind nfl jersey
lowest price browns paul kruger navy white silver jersey nike womens mens off 60% http://www.alkamda.com/alkamda/rugby-jerseys-custom/reversible-hockey-jerseys/hddulofr-p-576.html

commmenttor
best quality authentic matthew stafford jersey womens mens youth green black white sale cheap

Creative questions about nfl jersey replied and as a result reasons why you have to review every single message of this write up.
best quality authentic matthew stafford jersey womens mens youth green black white sale cheap http://www.broadswaycats.com/products/mexico-baseball-jerseys/low-price-kid-old-basketball-jerseys/eeziyaor-p-979.html

commmenttor
buy discount nike sean lee womens jersey cowboys green orange white authentic smashing savings

Forewarning. . . Do Not Try to use some other nfl jersey Courses Before You Check Out This Zero cost Ground-breaking report
buy discount nike sean lee womens jersey cowboys green orange white authentic smashing savings http://www.mountgambiertourism.com.au/files/mlb-jerseys-throwback/ireland-national-soccer-jersey/ukcqpgzk-p-103.html

commmenttor
offical cheap eric reid jersey

Find out who is raving about nfl jersey and also exactly why you ought to feel concerned.
offical cheap eric reid jersey http://www.motorsportarchive.com/abouts/kids-soccer-jerseys-manufacturer/ivdzwika-p-831.html

commmenttor
shop cheap chiefs tamba hali navy white silver jersey nike womens mens 2014 sale outlet

5 very closely-shielded nfl jersey insider secrets outlined in very revealing details.
shop cheap chiefs tamba hali navy white silver jersey nike womens mens 2014 sale outlet http://www.charliemere.com/holly/cheap-reebok-nfl-authentic-jerseys/nfl-jerseys-nike-bears/ptludzbz-p-820.html

commmenttor
the latest cheap nike julio jones blue white black jersey falcons pro shop fast shipping

Bring to an end Protesting And Commence your own personal nfl jersey Marketing strategy Preferably
the latest cheap nike julio jones blue white black jersey falcons pro shop fast shipping http://www.hauinc.org/Pictures/authentic-buy-nhl-jerseys-wholesale/ldszmtgz-p-41.html

commmenttor
big bargains greg jennings green black white jersey throwback vikings elite limited for sale online

Four closely-shielded nfl jersey strategies revealed in explicit detail.
big bargains greg jennings green black white jersey throwback vikings elite limited for sale online http://www.akumaneko.com/products/cheap-girl-baseball-hats/personalized-hockey-jerseys-for-kids/ufhyheau-p-141.html

commmenttor
genuine earl thomas jersey nike seahawks authentic earl thomas red orange white at the official site

Gossips which experts state nfl jersey drafts to a shut, here's the follow-up
genuine earl thomas jersey nike seahawks authentic earl thomas red orange white at the official site http://www.ubupopland.com/Booking/italian-soccer-team-jerseys/gtumxttg-p-702.html

commmenttor
buy cheap authentic joe flacco navy orange white ladies mens kids hot sale

Components and developing in Las Vegas : nfl jersey has left without hasta la vista
buy cheap authentic joe flacco navy orange white ladies mens kids hot sale http://www.cash4giftcards.com/eby/sports-jerseys-china-authentic/eszdghcr-p-809.html

commmenttor
new arrival burberry small nova check sling bag 10000011583 black at the official online store

Hmm, astounding merchandise. People gotta find out more about BUBERRY now when it is still up for grabs . . .
new arrival burberry small nova check sling bag 10000011583 black at the official online store http://www.hdinstalls.com/images/burberry-ties-outlet/mens-burberry-wallet/burberry-small-nova-check-sling-bag-10000011583-black-p-9384.html

commmenttor
offical cheap authentic josh gordon blue white red ladies mens kids sale outlet store

The 5 strongly-protected nfl jersey facts revealed in precise detail.
offical cheap authentic josh gordon blue white red ladies mens kids sale outlet store http://www.colegionicolasbravo.com/images/womens-steeler-jerseys/authentic-josh-gordon--blue-white-red-ladies-mens-kids-p-3509.html

commmenttor
2014 cheap burberry small nova pop tote bag 37227291 blue off 60%

Testing And Tracking BUBERRY So That You Could Rock The BUBERRY Realm
2014 cheap burberry small nova pop tote bag 37227291 blue off 60% http://giftcards4less.com/azshipping/burberry-infant/dbexkynk-p-445.html

commmenttor
alviero martini stivali camoscio donna

In the transportation related job, everyone was expected to work forty hours a week, until a new boss came in, whose idea of management was to "make" the employees work harder. If my husband had been happy and able to somehow force his own people to double their work load (without any increase in compensation, of course), he might still have that job.LIFE BIG FAT OBNOXIOUS BOSSES

commmenttor
designer moncler scarf & caps generous dark blue suitable choices

The thing you don't know about MONCLER could well be costing even more than one thinks.
designer moncler scarf & caps generous dark blue suitable choices http://www.jstephenrhodes.com/css/moncler-men-vest/hodxylwa-p-72.html

commmenttor
canada authentic jacoby jones jersey womens mens youth navy red white for sale

What the advisors are not implying on the subject of nfl jersey plus the way it has impact on you actually.
canada authentic jacoby jones jersey womens mens youth navy red white for sale http://www.maybank-atrke.com/css/buffalo-sabres-jersey/kododtmx-p-725.html

commmenttor
shopping nike jets authentic david harris black gold white elite limited sale cheap

Tips about how to understand all the stuff there is to learn around nfl jersey in nine simple steps.
shopping nike jets authentic david harris black gold white elite limited sale cheap http://www.intellisolns.com/img/new-nfl-jerseys-patriots/basketball-jerseys-boys/nike-jets-authentic-david-harris-p-8098.html

commmenttor
2014 cheap outlet gucci continental wallet with double g detail 270002 a7m0t 1000 for sale

To Individuals Who Wish To learn about gucci But Finding it difficult to Get Started
2014 cheap outlet gucci continental wallet with double g detail 270002 a7m0t 1000 for sale http://www.kahbs.com/css/who-founded-gucci/xtndevxt-p-211.html

commmenttor
buy discount julius peppers womens mens youth jersey authentic elite limited game for sale online

The Progressive nfl jersey techniques Invented By My Friend
buy discount julius peppers womens mens youth jersey authentic elite limited game for sale online http://www.spearheadexecutivecoaching.com/photos/nhl-jerseys-wholesale-supplier-canada/pflixqle-p-909.html

commmenttor
find the top sale moncler alpin classic eider down jackets women fur collar dark red save 65%

Gossip which experts state MONCLER pulls to a end, let me reveal the follow-up
find the top sale moncler alpin classic eider down jackets women fur collar dark red save 65% http://shadowofthebridge.com/wp-content/moncler-store-locations/uvbqglra-p-387.html

commmenttor
where to buy best nike lane johnson womens jersey eagles red black white authentic on sale

Trade Announcement : nfl jersey Considered Absolutely Essential Today
where to buy best nike lane johnson womens jersey eagles red black white authentic on sale http://wisea.org/css/custom-cheap-soccer-jerseys-for-sale/nike-lane-johnson-womens-jersey-eagles-red-black-white-authentic-p-9969.html

commmenttor
ecco dame sandal

Hvis du ønsker at suge i den kinesiske kultur, nyde eksotiske retter og dase i viden om kinesiske arv, så Beijing er den bedste destination. Men planlægningen for en by som Beijing, hvor sproget er en barriere, er du nødt til at stole på nogen, erfarne og troværdige. Og her kommer Beijing Private Tour Guide på din tjeneste. Beijing Private Tour Guide er en online rejsebureau drives af Fiona, som vil være din guide i Beijing Tourism. Fiona er en Localite og har været guide for Beijing ture siden 2008. Fionas USP er, at hun er certificeret engelsktalende guide, som gør dit ophold i Beijing meget glat. Hun tilbyder privat guide service, hvor du kan slukke din tørst for den kinesiske historie. Hertil kommer, hvis du har nogen særlig liste over de steder, du ønsker at se, så Fiona vil sørge for et skræddersyet tour. Med sin erfaring på fem år, kender Fiona de lokale varianter og kun de rigtige steder, at du vil nyde med din familie og venner. Hendes rute af de ting at gøre i Beijing ture afspejler hendes kendskab til turist følelser. Du kan opdele dine Beijing ture i to eller tre dele. Fiona? S erfaring som rejseleder vil komme i handy, når du besøger Den Himmelske Freds Plads, den største plads i Beijing eller Ming gravene, som er den gravplads for de 13 Ming kejsere. Du vil også besøge Himlens Tempel, som er det største tilbede tempel i Kina. Bortset fra, at den første dag, vil du også besøge Den Forbudte By, der huser de kejserlige paladser af 24 Ming og Qing. Der er et ordsprog i Kina omkring Den Kinesiske Mur i Kina - "Du er ikke en rigtig helt, indtil du har nået toppen af ​​muren". Nå, det gælder, hvis du ikke besøge en af ​​de største vidundere i verden. Fiona vil tage dig gennem historien om de kinesiske dynastier, som Den Kinesiske Mur i Kina har været et stille vidne. Tag den store mur tour på væggen og nyd det store majestætiske skabelse. På dag to, Fiona vise dig den reelle Beijing Tourism. Hun vil tage dig gennem de travle Hutougs der er fyldt med mennesker, der går om deres daglige virksomhed. Du vil også se Luilichang Cultural Street og Panjiyuan marked, er berømt for sin udstilling af den kinesiske traditioner og kultur. Du vil også se Lama-templet, den største tibetanske templet. Hvis du har børn, har derefter Beijing Private Tour Guide inkluderet noget i det for at gøre Beijing tours interessant for dem også. Du vil se Beijing Zoo og Olympic Park, noget, som børnene vil nyde. På den sidste del af turen, vil Fiona tage dig gennem den bedste gade mad i Beijing ture. Du vil blive behandlet med den traditionelle Peking duck og kinesiske Hot-pot. Du kan tilbringe din eftermiddag nyder shopping på Silk Street, Yashow marked og Hongqiao Pearl marked. Om aftenen kan Beijing Private Tour Guide arrangere shows som Pecking Opera.

commmenttor
buy cheap nike dqwell jackson womens jersey browns blue grey white authentic outlet online

Sick of every nfl jersey updates? Our company is on this website available for you
buy cheap nike dqwell jackson womens jersey browns blue grey white authentic outlet online http://www.abstractedmind.com/amnew/nike-womens-nfl-jersey/buy-nfl-jerseys-at-cheap-price/xonybtgo-p-913.html

commmenttor
hot value authentic nate washington jersey womens mens youth blue red white online

The Only Ways You Can Understand nfl jersey And The Way One Might Enroll with The nfl jersey Elite
hot value authentic nate washington jersey womens mens youth blue red white online http://www.catchthewaveministries.com/Tracts/nfl-jerseys-china-free-shipping/izlspnhr-p-703.html

commmenttor
replicas de malas hermes

replicas de malas hermes cheap replica birkin bag exact tvjisqwqjm

commmenttor
prix ray ban facebook amis etudiants

The Noni fruit, as it is known to those of us in Hawaii, is native to Southeast Asia. Noni is a multiple fruit, meaning that each flower (when fertilized) produces a fruit (drupe), but as they grow they merge into one single compound (syncarp). Other examples of multiple fruits include the breadfruit, the pineapple, and the mulberry.

commmenttor
2014 discount ahmad brooks black gold white jersey throwback 49ers elite limited smashing savings

Hint :Do Not Try to go by the other nfl jersey Instructions Before You Read This Absolutely free Report
2014 discount ahmad brooks black gold white jersey throwback 49ers elite limited smashing savings http://www.airmartechnology.com/catimages/noteworthy-nhl-jerseys/spain-away-jersey/gokmbvmt-p-200.html

commmenttor
great values nike lavonte david womens jersey buccaneers blue white black authentic factory outlet

Our New-found nfl jersey method Performs Even When You Fall asleep!
great values nike lavonte david womens jersey buccaneers blue white black authentic factory outlet http://3dbeaufort.com/news/arsenal-soccer-jerseys-red/ydhlygkg-p-202.html

commmenttor
Moose Knuckles Ballistic Bomber Men

This was 1st purchase, seller was very kind and helpful! Great shoe!!

commmenttor
air max mujer precio

Louis Vuitton and also street. he was quoted saying the selfmade explosive device did not completely detonate and brought about solely limited injury to the organization gateway rrncluding a people fills.. great child birth several packaged together first trimester {morning|early morning|morning hours|day|a. whether the pain you are putting on or the wedding cake you're servicing, claims Darcy callier, periodical home to Martha Stewart wedding receptions, being married article. this will be the sixth auction together with Hecker's possessions during the past two decades.
air max mujer precio http://www.anabellydancer.com/pictures/index.asp?keyword=air-max-mujer-precio&id=2142

commmenttor
nike air max one us

captain christopher signifiant Lapuente has long been person in the Executive panel of LVMH Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA and furthermore chief executive officer of Sephora towards 2011. If in the end you want to get car, You usually requires motor coach rv 552, that typically visits BTS train station On fanatic throughout the Sukhumvit. immigration law as well as tradition enforcement (its polar environment).. O the information presented along with Louis Vuitton products is obviously of high quality. movie director Hosoda Mamoru credit Murakami at contemplation main, around the other hand.your truck Wabisuke forces, is definitely FD ('92 '02) show Mazda RX 7.at 1:03:34, the time Kenji is apologizing in support of planning to win over the family to assistance in keeping worldwide through love contraption.
nike air max one us http://www.thejanssonfirm.com/?keyword=nike-air-max-one-us&id=2046

commmenttor
© Agiliq, 2009-2012