Understanding '*', '*args', '**' and '**kwargs'

By : Akshar Raaj

When i started learning Python, i was very confused regarding what args, kwargs, * and ** does. And i feel there are few like me who had this confusion and problem. With this post, i intend to reduce (hopefully i can eliminate) that confusion.

Throughout this post, i will be using ipython and i suggest you to try everything on ipython as well. We will intentionally make some mistakes along the way, so that we can understand this topic better.

Let's divide our work under five sections:

  1. Understanding what '*' does from inside a function call.
  2. Understanding what '*args' mean inside a function definition.
  3. Understanding what '**' does from inside a function call.
  4. Understanding what '**kwargs' mean inside a function definition.
  5. A practical example of where we use 'args', 'kwargs' and why we use it.

Understanding what * does from inside a function call.

Let's define a function "fun" which takes three positional arguments.

In [5]: def fun(a, b, c):
   ...:     print a, b, c

Call this function passing three positional arguments

In [7]: fun(1,2,3)
1 2 3                     #Output

So, calling this function by passing three positional arguments, prints the three arguments passed to the function.

Let's make a list with three integer values in it.

In [8]: l = [1,2,3]

Let's use '*' now.

In [9]: fun(*l)
1 2 3                     #Output

What did '*' do?

It unpacked the values in list 'l' as positional arguments. And then the unpacked values were passed to function 'fun' as positional arguments.

So, unpacking the values in list and changing it to positional arguments meant writing fun(*l) was equivalent to writing fun(1,2,3). Keep in mind that l=[1,2,3]. Let's try with some other value of 'l'.

In [10]: l=[5,7,9]

In [11]: fun(*l)
5 7 9                     #Output

Let's make some errors now. Let's put four values in "l".

In [12]: l=[3,5,6,9]

Now, try to call function "fun".

In [13]: fun(*l)
TypeError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)

/home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in <module>()

TypeError: fun() takes exactly 3 arguments (4 given)

So, in our last statement which is 'fun(*l)' we did not get a proper output and a TypeError was raised. See the error, it says "TypeError: fun() takes exactly 3 arguments (4 given)".

Why did it happen?

list 'l' contains four values. So, when we tried 'fun(*l)', 'l' was unpacked so that its value could be sent as positional arguments. But, "l" has four values in it. So, writing 'fun(*l)' was equivalent to writing 'fun(3,5,6,9)'. But, 'fun' is defined to take only three positional arguments and hence we got this error. Similary, you can follow same steps with two values in list 'l' and notice the error.

In [14]: l=[5,6]

In [15]: fun(*l)
TypeError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)

/home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in <module>()

TypeError: fun() takes exactly 3 arguments (2 given)

Let's mix '*l' with a positional argument.

In [16]: fun(1, *l)
1 5 6                  #Output.

Here we gave one positional argument which is 1 and two values i.e 5 and 6 were unpacked from "l" and hence 1,5 and 6 were passed to 'fun'.

Hope you were able to follow what '*' does when used inside a function call.

Understanding what '*args' mean inside a function definition.

Let's change the function definition now.

In [18]: def fun(*args):
   ....:     print args

Call this function with one positional argument.

In [19]: fun(1)
(1,)                  #Output

Now call this function with two positional arguments or any number of positional arguments you wish.

In [20]: fun(1,2,3)
(1, 2, 3)

What does '*args' in a function definition do?

It recieves a tuple containing the positional arguments beyond the formal parameter list. So, "args" is a tuple. Don't worry about the part "formal parameter list" in our explanation, it will be clear with next few examples. In our last example when we printed "args", it printed a tuple which contained all the values we passed while calling the function.

Let's mix "*args" with some "formal parameter list". Note that in our last example we didn't have any formal parameter list. Let's redefine our function.

In [21]: def fun(a, *args):
   ....:     print "a is ", a
   ....:     print "args is ", args

In this function definition, parameter "a" constitue the "formal parameter list". Let's call "fun" with four positional argument.

In [22]: fun(1, 2, 3, 4)
a is  1                                #Output
args is  (2, 3, 4)

So, we can see that 'a' is assigned 1 which was the first positional argument. There is only one parameter "*args" defined after "a". So, "args" received a tuple containing the positional arguments beyond the formal parameter list. So, args received 2, 3 and 4 as a tuple.

We can also call "fun" with just one positional argument. Let's do that.

In [23]: fun(1)
a is  1                                #Output
args is  ()                            #args received an empty tuple

Here, we passed only one argument to the function which was assigned to the formal parameter 'a'. So, 'args' received an empty tuple as can be seen from the output.

After we have "args", we can extract the values and do whatever we want. Let's redefine "fun".

In [24]: def fun(a, *args):
   ....:     print a
   ....:     print "args can receive a tuple of any number of arguments. Let's print all that."
   ....:     for arg in args:
   ....:         print arg

We can call "fun" with any number of arguments.

In [25]: fun(1,5,6,7)
1                                                                         #Output
args can receive a tuple of any number of arguments. Let's print all that.

Since 'args' is a tuple, we could iterate over it.

Now, let's consider a case where we use whatever we saw till here. Here we need to use two functions. First function has to take an arbitrary number of arguments and it has to calculate the sum of all the arguments except the first argument. Also, this function has to make use of another function to calculate the sum. Weird use case, but we just need to recap whatever we did till here. The objective here is to see how we get a variable number of arguments in a function and pass these arguments to another function.

Let's first write the function which has to calculate the sum i.e the second function. For our use case, this function will be used in the first function which we are yet to write.

In [26]: def calculate_sum(*args):
   ....:     return sum(args)

Here we make use of 'sum'. Function 'sum' is an inbuilt function which takes a tuple or a list and return the sum of all the elements in the tuple. From our function definition we can see that 'args' will receive a tuple containing all the positional arguments passed to this function. So, 'args' will be a tuple and can be directly used as an argument to function 'sum'. Let's write the other function which takes any number of arguments and uses previous function to calulate the sum of all arguments except the first argument.

In [29]: def ignore_firstargs_calculate_sum(a, *iargs):
   ....:     required_sum = calculate_sum(*iargs)
   ....:     print "sum is", required_sum

We can pass any number of arguments to this function. First argument will be recieved by 'a' which is a formal parameter. All other arguments will be recieved by 'iargs' as a tuple. As per the case we are considering, we want to calculate the sum of all arguments except the first. So, we leave 'a' as it receives the first argument. 'iargs' is the tuple containing all arguments except the first. We will make use of function 'calculate_sum'. But 'calculate_sum' expects number of positional arguments to be sent to it which it will receive in 'args' as a tuple. So, in function 'ignore_firstargs_calculate_sum' we need to unpack 'iargs', as it is a tuple, and then send the unpacked positional arguments to 'calculate_sum'. Remember, we used '*' to unpack a list/tuple.

So, we write 'required_sum=calculate_sum(*iargs)'.

We can't write 'required_sum=calculate_sum(iargs)' because we need to unpack the values in the tuple 'iargs' before sending to 'calculate_sum'. Not using '*' will not unpack the values and hence we won't have the desired behaviour. Let's use the function we wrote.

In [34]: ignore_firstargs_calculate_sum(3,1,2,6)
sum is 9                          #Output

The output is the sum of all arguments except the first argument.

Understanding what '**' does when used from inside a function.

Let's consider a simple example first. Let's define a function which takes three arguments.

In [35]: def fun(a, b, c):
   ....:     print a, b, c

Let's call this function in various ways.

In [36]: fun(1,2,3)
1 2 3                            #Output

In [37]: fun(1, b=4, c=6)
1 4 6                            #Output

Let's use "**" from inside the function call. For this we want a dictionary. Remember, while using "*" in the function call, we required a list/tuple. For using "**" in the function call, we require a dictionary.

In [38]: d={'b':5, 'c':7}

Let's call "fun" using "**" in the function call.

In [39]: fun(1, **d)
1 5 7

What "**" did while being used in a function call?

It unpacked the dictionary used with it, and passed the items in the dictionary as keyword arguments to the function. So writing "fun(1, **d)" was equivalent to writing "fun(1, b=5, c=7)".

Let's try some more examples to understand it better.

In [40]: d={'c':3}

In [42]: fun(1,2,**d)           #This is equivalent to fun(1,2,c=3)
1 2 3

In [43]: d={'a':7,'b':8,'c':9}

In [44]: fun(**d)
7 8 9                           #Output

Let's make some errors now.

In [45]: d={'a':1, 'b':2, 'c':3, 'd':4}

In [46]: fun(**d)
TypeError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)

/home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in <module>()

TypeError: fun() got an unexpected keyword argument 'd'

Last statement was equivalent to fun(a=1, b=2, c=3, d=4). But, "fun" expected only three arguments and hence we got this error.

In [47]: d={'a':1, 'b':5, 'd':9}

In [48]: fun(**d)
TypeError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)

/home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in <module>()

TypeError: fun() got an unexpected keyword argument 'd'

Last statement was equivalent to fun(a=1, b=5, d=9). Although it passed three arguments which is the number of arguments expected by "fun", but "fun" does not have 'd' in its parameter list. But, 'd' was passed as a keyword argument And hence we got this error.

So, "**" unpacks the dictionary i.e the key values pairs in the dictionary as keyword arguments and these are sent as keyword arguments to the function being called. "*" unpacks a list/tuple i.e the values in the list as positional arguments and these are sent as positional arguments to the function being called.

Understanding "**kwargs" in a function definition.

Let's redefine our function "fun".

In [49]: def fun(a, **kwargs):
   ....:     print a, kwargs

So, this function can only take one positional argument since formal parameter list contains only one variable 'a'. But with "**kwargs", it can take any number of keyword arguments. Let's see some examples.

In [50]: fun(1, b=4, c=5)
1 {'c': 5, 'b': 4}                #Output

In [51]: fun(2, b=6, c=7, d=8)
2 {'c': 7, 'b': 6, 'd': 8}        #Output

What does "**kwargs" mean when used in a function definition?

With "**kwargs" in the function definition, kwargs receives a dictionary containing all the keyword arguments beyond the formal parameter list. Remember 'kwargs' will be a dictionary. In our previous two examples, when we printed kwargs, it printed a dictionary containing all the keyword arguments beyond the formal parameter list.

Let's again redefine our function.

In [54]: def fun(a, **kwargs):
   ....:     print "a is", a
   ....:     print "We expect kwargs 'b' and 'c' in this function"
   ....:     print "b is", kwargs['b']
   ....:     print "c is", kwargs['c']

Let's call "fun" now.

In [55]: fun(1, b=3, c=5)
a is 1                  
We expect kwargs 'b' and 'c' in this function
b is 3
c is 5

Let's make some errors now.

In [56]: fun(1, b=3, d=5)
a is 1
We expect kwargs 'b' and 'c' in this function
b is 3
c is---------------------------------------------------------------------------
KeyError                                  Traceback (most recent call last)

/home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in <module>()

/home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in fun(a, **kwargs)

KeyError: 'c'

We were able to call the function. First positional argument was printed. Keyword argument 'b' was printed. But the other keyword argument we passed was 'd'. Since function expected a keyword argument 'c' and tried to access it from the dictionary "kwargs". But since we did not pass any keyword argument 'c', we got this error. If we add a keyword argument 'c' in the function call, we won't get the error anymore.

In [57]: fun(1, b=3, d=5, c=7)
a is 1
We expect kwargs 'b' and 'c' in this function
b is 3
c is 7

Since having "**kwargs" in the function argument list, we can pass any number of keyword arguments. We passed 'd' but did not make any use of it in the function.

Let's make one more error.

In [58]: fun(1, {'b':2, 'c':3})
TypeError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)

/home/akshar/branding_git/netconference/<ipython console> in <module>()

TypeError: fun() takes exactly 1 argument (2 given)

As the error says, Function "fun" expected only one postional argument but was given two. So, although 'kwargs' receives the keyword arguments as a dictionary, you cannot pass a dictionary as a positional argument to 'kwargs'. Although you could have done somehing like:

In [59]: fun(1, **{'b':2, 'c':3})
a is 1
We expect kwargs 'b' and 'c' in this function
b is 2
c is 3

Using "**" in front of the dictionary unpacks the dictionary and passes the items in dictionary as keyword arguments.

A practical example of where we use 'args', '*kwargs' and why we use it.

Whenever we inherit a class and override some of the methods of inherited class, we should use '*args' and '**kwargs' and pass the received positional and keyword arguments to the superclass method. Can be better understood with an example.

In [4]: class Model(object):
   ...:     def __init__(self, name):
   ...:         self.name = name
   ...:     def save(self, force_update=False, force_insert=False):
   ...:         if force_update and force_insert:
   ...:             raise ValueError("Cannot perform both operations")
   ...:         if force_update:
   ...:             #Update an existing record
   ...:             print "Updated an existing record"
   ...:         if force_insert:
   ...:             #Create a new record
   ...:             print "Created a new record"

We defined a class. We can create objects of this class and objects of this class have a method "save()". Assume that the objects of this class can be saved in a database which is being done inside the save() method. Depending on the arguments we pass to save() method, it is determined whether new records need to be created in the database or an existing record need to be updated.

We want a new class where we want 'Model' behaviour but we only want to have save the objects of this class after we have checked some conditions. So let's subclass 'Model' and override 'save()' of 'Model'.

In [6]: class ChildModel(Model):
   ...:     def save(self, *args, **kwargs):
   ...:         if self.name=='abcd':
   ...:             super(ChildModel, self).save(*args, **kwargs)
   ...:         else:
   ...:             return None

Actual saving of object(as per our assumption, connecting with database and creating/updating) happens in the "save" method of "Model". So we need to call the "save()" method of superclass from save() method of ChildModel. Also, save() method of subclass i.e ChildModel should be able to accept any arguments that save() of superclass accepts and must pass through these arguments to the superclass save(). So we have "*args" and "**kwargs" in the argument list of subclass save() method to receive any positional arguments or keyword arguments beyond the formal parameter list.

Let's create an instance of ChildModel and save it.

In [7]: c=ChildModel('abcd')

So, we created an instance of ChildModel with name='abcd'.

In [9]: c.save(force_insert=True)
Created a new record       #Output

Here, we passed a keyword argument to save() of the object. The save() we called is the subclass save(). It received a dictionary containing the keyword argument in "kwargs". Then it used "**" to unpack this dictionary as keyword arguments and then passed it to the superclass save(). So, superclass save() got a keyword argument 'force_insert' and acted accordingly.

Let's try to pass another keyword argument.

In [10]: c.save(force_update=True)
Updated an existing record      #Output

That was all about it. Hope you liked the post.

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Topics : python args kwargs


Anoop Thomas Mathew

Nice and informative post Akshar. Keep going.


useful and well explained. thanks.


Wow, great post, thanks!

Marco Massenzio

Thanks, Akshar - good post: it was, indeed, helpful!

Kim 10th June, 2012

Great content, it is really useful.

The fact that I can't see all of the code w/o hovering over each snippet in turn, plus it doesn't print properly, detracts somewhat, though.

pramod 17th June, 2012

Brilliant stuff! Great explanation.

pvilas 26th June, 2012

Thank you very much for the job! Great explanation.

foo 21st July, 2012

thanks for the thorough explanation!

pax 24th July, 2012

Please post about "understanding super() function in python"
Thank you

someguy 7th Oct., 2012

using "l" (lower L) in an example using numbers like "1", make you an asshole. take some time to care about readability you fucking asshole

lokesh jain 2008

i am your fan. a big fan.


Good useful examples. I need much more clear examples.

Jamie 1st Dec., 2012

Awesome, thanks heaps!!, so clearly written and helpful....

AV 17th Jan., 2013

Very useful and well-explained article. Great work. Thanks a lot.

spd 22nd Jan., 2013

really useful.. thanks for the lucid explanation..

Dusan 31st Jan., 2013

Great work. Very useful


Antonio 5th March, 2013

From Spain, thank you very much for this great explanation. Examples are very clear. Congratulations for the blog & the team.

greg 5th March, 2013

This is the only really clear explanation about args and kwargs I have seen on the internet.


One more thing that I wish for to share here is that, doesn't matter what you are using free blogging service but if you don't update your web site on daily basis then it's no more worth.


Great article, thank you very much, help me a lot ;)

Oskr 29th March, 2013

Uff,, you saveme to understand them (args kargs)

Artem 5th May, 2013

Really cool! Saying in russian - ???????!

manikanta kumar 9th May, 2013

very helpful.. thanks for making me understood clearly about args, kwargs,*,**.

enrique reyes 13th May, 2013

Quite helpful and well explained. Thank you!

chandrika 3rd July, 2013

Thanks for the detailed explanation. It is really helpful to beginners in python

Jonwood 7th Sept., 2013

Thank you so much for the concise explanation. I could not understand these until i read this article

Manish 18th Sept., 2013

Great post,explained all the points very well.

ramin 13th Oct., 2013

thank you. very informative.

jeyashini 24th Oct., 2013

wonderful post... thanks a lot...

Renil 5th Nov., 2013

Thank you for brilliant explanation..

Harikrishna 6th Dec., 2013

Good, clearly explianed

Dishant Chavda 27th Dec., 2013

Great job , really nice examples to even make beginner a pro :P
Really learned a lot here.
Thanx Big time.

krishna 3rd Jan., 2014

Great Work. Thanks for sharing your knowledge. This is what I was looking for.


Definitely, one of the things that makes Python different from other languages like Ruby where you don't have pack pack/unpack when passing lists and hashes to functions.
You explained it very well, thank you for that !

pawelrc 27th June, 2014

Nice explanation. Thanks!

Need to You Decide on Sunglasses

Understanding '*', '*args', '**' and '**kwargs' - Agiliq Blog | Django web app development


Exactly what I needed today for the next step in learning Python. Thanks Akshar!


Nice post, Is easy to understand why to use *args and **kwards, Thanks.

Katana Sword

awaesome!!!! thank you!!!!!

Abhishek Jung Karki 2nd Sept., 2014

You sir have made my day. The best tutorial in the internet!

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